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FUEL CELLs - available  technologies on a market

Fuel cells generate electricity by an electrochemical reaction in which oxygen and hydrogen (as fuel) combine to form water, power and heat. Unlike traditional combustion engines, the fuel is not combusted, the energy is instead being released electro-catalytically. This allows fuel cells to be highly energy efficient, especially if the heat produced by the reaction is also used for space heating. It is the only zero CO2 footprint Cogeneration method.

A fuel cell is like a battery in that it generates electricity from an electrochemical reaction. Both, batteries and fuel cells convert chemical potential energy into electrical energy and also, as a by-product of this process, into heat energy.

However, a battery holds a closed store of energy within it and once this is depleted the battery must be discarded, or recharged by using an external supply of electricity to drive the electrochemical reaction in the reverse direction. A fuel cell, on the other hand, uses an external supply of chemical energy and can run indefinitely, as long as it is supplied with a source of hydrogen and a source of oxygen (usually air).

There are several different types of fuel cells. A fuel cell unit consists of a stack, which is composed of a number of individual fuel cells. Each cell within the stack has two electrodes, one positive and one negative, called the cathode and the anode. The reactions that produce electricity take place at the electrodes. Every fuel cell also has either a solid or a liquid electrolyte, which carries ions from one electrode to the other, and a catalyst, which accelerates the reactions at the electrodes. The electrolyte plays a key role - it must permit only the appropriate ions to pass between the electrodes. If free electrons or other substances travel through the electrolyte, they disrupt the chemical reaction and lower the efficiency of the cell. (this can typically be CO2)

PEM Fuel Cell

Proton Exchange (PEM) Membrane Solid Fuel Cells

SO Fuel Cell

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells


A Fuel Cell

Alkaline Fuel Cells


MC Fuel Cell

Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs)

DM Fuel Cell

direct methanol fuel cell


PA Fuel Cell

Phosphoric acid fuel cells