DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL - DMFC
The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is a relatively recent addition to the suite of fuel cell technologies; it was invented and developed in the 1990s by researchers at several institutions in the United States, including NASA.
It is similar to the PEM cell in that it uses a polymer membrane as an electrolyte. However, the platinum-ruthenium catalyst on the DMFC anode is able to extract the hydrogen from liquid methanol, eliminating the need of a fuel reformer. Therefore pure methanol can be used as a fuel instead of Hydrogen.
Methanol offers several advantages as a fuel. It is inexpensive but has a relatively high energy density and can be easily transported and stored. It can be supplied to the fuel cell unit from a liquid reservoir which can be kept topped up, or in cartridges which can be quickly changed out when spent.
DMFCs operate in the temperature range from 60ºC to 130ºC and tend to be used in applications with modest power requirements, such as mobile electronic devices or chargers and portable power packs. One particular application for DMFCs which is seeing commercial traction in various countries is the use of DMFC power units for materials handling vehicles.
Disadvantage is that by product of methanol reforming is CO2 thus DMFC can not be considered totally carbon free.
DMFC is also rather supported by government agencies because production of methanol is simply controllable and taxable compare to pure hydrogen electrolyzing that allows zero control :).